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Aditya Arie Nugraha's weblog

Archive for the ‘Academic’ Category

Mermelstein – Articulatory Model for the Study of Speech Production

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When doing my final-year project, I used Mermelstein’s paper (“Articulatory Model for the Study of Speech Production”) as my most important resource because it defined Mermelstein’s articulatory model which I used in final-year project. Thanks to Jose Brito who gave me the scanned version. Here, I will share the PDF version for you.

Download the paper, here.


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October 10, 2008 at 4:37 pm

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My Final-Year Project Abstract

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Parameterization of Articulatory-Model Speech Synthesizer for Indonesian Phonemes


The evaluation of text-to-speech system can be started with evaluation of speech generated by the system. There are two evaluation criterias, that are naturality and intelligibility of speech. Theoretically, articulatory synthesis is a good method of speech-generating process for the text-to-speech system because it can generate natural speech. So, it will have high intelligibility rate. Until now, there is no complete data of articulatory-model parameters for generating Indonesian phonemes. Whereas, these data are very important in Indonesian text-to-speech system development which use articulatory synthesis for generating speech. Therefore, a research on finding these parameters has to be done.

In this research, parameterization involve speech synthesis process which is done using ARTM toolbox in MATLAB. Speech synthesis process itself can be divided into analysis, speech inverse filtering, excitation set up, and synthesis process. Pre-processing and post-processing can be added to those processes. Pre-processing provide formant contour of speech signal from the speech recording input. Frames which contain four first formant frequencies information is produced from formant contour in analysis process. Articulatory-model speech generator parameters for certain frame then can be provided from the frame in speech inverse filtering process. Using these articulatory-model parameters and excitation parameters, which are determined in excitation set up, synthesis process produces speech signal. Post-processing is done to determine the right frame to represent a certain phoneme and its articulatory-model parameters.

Using this methodology, articulatory-model speech synthesizer parameters for almost all Indonesian phonemes, except fricative phonemes, can be obtained. Although those parameters have not represent ideal articulatory-model yet, articulatory-model speech synthesizer parameters for Indonesian phonemes which are obtained in this research can generate human-speech-like signal.

Keyword: text-to-speech, speech synthesizer, articulatory synthesis, articulatory model

Written by arie

July 23, 2008 at 2:14 pm

Why is ‘w’ pronounced ‘double u’ rather than ‘double v’?

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English uses the Latin alphabet of the Romans. However, this had no letter suitable for representing the phoneme /w/ which was used in Old English, though phonetically the sound represented by /v/ was quite close. In the 7th century scribes wrote uu for /w/; later they used the runic symbols known as wynn. European scribes had continued to write uu, and this usage returned to England with the Norman Conquest in 1066. Early printers sometimes used vv for lack of a w in their type. The name double-u recalls the former identity of u and v, which is also evident in a number of cognate words (flour/flower, guard/ward, suede/Swede, etc.). (source:

The earliest form of the letter W was a doubled V used in the 7th century by the earliest writers of Old English; it is from this <uu> digraph that the modern name “double U” comes. This digraph was not extensively used, as its sound was usually represented instead by the runic wynn (Ƿ), but W gained popularity after the Norman Conquest, and by 1300 it had taken wynn’s place in common use. Other forms of the letter were a pair of Vs whose branches cross in the middle. An obsolete, cursive form found in the nineteenth century in both English and German was in the form of an “n” whose rightmost branch curved around as in a cursive “v” (compare the shape of ƕ). (source:

In the IPA vowels chart, we also can see both semivowel y and w. Phoneme y is a rounded front close vowel, while phoneme w which represented as an inverted-m is a unrounded back close vowel.

At first, I didn’t know what symbol represents phoneme w in the IPA vowels or consonants chart. However, after I read several information (history) about why grapheme w is pronounced ‘double u’, I’m quite sure that the inverted-m symbol in IPA vowels chart represents phoneme w.

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May 29, 2008 at 1:50 am

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IPA Indonesian Vowels Chart

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International Phonetic Association had mapped vowel sounds into a chart as seen below. The y-axis represents the lip opening and the x-axis represents the tongue position.

IPA Vowels Chart
IPA Vowels Chart

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Written by arie

March 13, 2008 at 4:53 pm

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144 is a sacred number for me… :mrgreen:

It is ‘sacred’ because it is one of the requirements that should be fulfilled so that I can graduate from ITB with a title Sarjana Teknik (Bachelor of Engineering). Until the last semester, I have taken 134 Semester Credit Units (SCUs), so for this semester I just have to take 10 SCU. In the beginning of this semester, I decided to take 12 SCUs. I took 1 elective subject, that is Rekayasa Trafik dan Desain Jaringan Multilayanan (Traffic Engineering and Multiservice Network Design), besides 4 compulsory subjects.

After several weeks, I realize that I still have many jobs to do, relate to my final-year project. Moreover, I want to graduate on this July 2008. It means I have to finish my final-year project on May, so that I can take the final-year project on June. Based on that reasons, I decided to drop my elective subject and I had my ‘new’ Kartu Studi Mahasiswa/KSM (Student’s Study Plan Card) approved. So, totally, I will take 144 SCUs in 59 courses during my bachelor degree program.

The bottom line is I just take 10 SCUs in this semester, including 4 SCUs of Final-Year Project II subject. So, there is no single reason I can’t graduate on July 2008. Wish me luck…

PS: I think I should revise my Description of Subjects document I published the day before yesterday…

Written by arie

February 29, 2008 at 12:15 am

What a Disappointing Mark !

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I don’t know why, but I’m still disappointed with my laboratory (Computer Engineering Laboratory III) mark. At the last time, finally, my score had been announced the day before yesterday. And I was very surprised when I ‘just’ got B. It’s absolutely destroying my perfect semester.

I’m really disappointed because the laboratory mark just came from my embedded system (Embedded System) laboratory mark. In fact, I took this course not in the last semester (1st of 2007/2008), but in the previous semester (2nd of 2006/2007). So, whatever the laboratory mark I got, it won’t demonstrate my laboratory performance in the last semester. I prefer the laboratory mark come from VLSI Systems Design laboratory mark, because I really did the laboratory activities in the last semester.

Moreover, I doubt from where my embedded system laboratory mark come from. My laboratory mark should be announced on the beginning of this semester, but the laboratory’s lecturer did not announced my mark because there was no my embedded system laboratory mark. How come? I had finished take the courses more than 6 months ago and there is no embedded system laboratory mark. If my embedded system lecturer declares my mark just now, from where my embedded system laboratory mark, which is influence my laboratory mark, come from? Maybe there is my final report, but is he still remembers my project presentation, which is shall also including in my mark?

After all, I can’t raise my objection because there is no enough time for me to raise it. My lecturer is a deadliner (a person who finish his/her job on the day of deadline, even several minutes or hours before the deadline), just the same as me, his student. So, I don’t think even if I raise my objection I will get benefit.

Written by arie

February 27, 2008 at 12:17 am

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Description of Subjects Taken During Higher Education

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Finally, I have finished the document about description of subjects taken during my higher degree. As I told you before, I work on this document as preparation for applying graduate program, especially if I want to continue my study overseas. You can download the document here. I hope it can help you to arrange your own description of subjects.

Disclaimer: I am not guarantee that the description of certain course is the same one with yours, although the name of course is same. So, always check the description whether it is right for your course or not before you use it. In addition, I am not guarantee that the English version of courses’ name is right. :mrgreen:

Written by arie

February 26, 2008 at 12:02 am

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